Social Media and Public Sector week 5 lecture

Social media & public sector

  • Initial suspicion towards SM.
  • Lack of, or anecdotal only, evidence.
  • Fear that employees may misrepresent their organisations or disclose sensitive information.
  • According to Socitm survey many councils take a cautious view of social media, with some 90% restricting access in some way and with 67% having a total ban on use.
  • Need to establish organisational policy and protocols for SM use by employees and  managing the organisation’s reputation online.


  • It comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching and is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
  • E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM.

eLearning 2.0

  • E-learning 2.0 places increased emphasis on social learning and use of social software and virtual worlds.
  • AKA Long Tail Learning
  • It assumes that knowledge is socially constructed, so learning takes place through conversations about content and systematic interaction about problems and actions.
  • Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others.
  • Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around various subjects.

Online learning communities

  • Online learning communities address their members’ learning needs by facilitating peer-to-peer learning. People work as a community to achieve a shared learning objective through social networking.
  • Learning objectives may be proposed by the community owner or may arise out of discussions between participants that reflect personal interests.

Categories of OLC ( Online learning community )

According to contact

e-learning communities
(groups interact and connect solely via technology)

blended learning communities
(face-to-face meetings as well as online meetings)

According to relationship

  • knowledge-based
  • practice-based << as in a work environment
  • task-based << usually in work environment as well, a task which needs to be fulfilled and a course is not required but people inside the business will help

According to focus

  • personal aspects << if you are interested in something but you want to learn more
  • process << its a process, a step towards something else which will help me on another thing
  • technology.

Enabling technologies 

  • Synchronous (e.g. instant messaging) < real time response (ask reply, ask reply)
  • Asynchronous
  • (e.g. message boards, Internet forums) << takes a bit longer to reply
  • Blogs <<
  • Wikis
  • Course management tools
  • (e.g. Blackboard, Moodle,  Lectureshare)
  • Social learning (e.g. Babbel, ConnectYard)
  • Social sharing (e.g. and Flickr)


Open Source Course Management System

1113566 registered users (Fri, Oct 21st 2011)

“Activity modules
(such as forums,
databases and wikis)
to build collaborative
communities of learning
around their subject
matter [..] while others
prefer to use Moodle
as a way to deliver
content to students
and assess learning
using assignments
or quizzes.”


  • Also called Health Informatics
  • E- health  is a relatively recent term for healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication,
  • Its broad definition covers electronic/digital processes in health
  • A narrower definition covers aspects of healthcare practice using the Internet.

eHealth range of services  

  • Electronic health records: communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals; <<how the NHS stores peoples personal data which is centralised.
  • Telemedicine: treatments at a distance;
  • Consumer health informatics: use of electronic resources on medical topics by healthy individuals or patients;
  • Health knowledge management: overview of latest medical journals, best practice guidelines, epidemiological tracking <<HKM is info abt health for practitioners
  • Virtual healthcare teams: healthcare professionals collaborating/sharing information on patients; << mostly specialised drs.
  • M – health: health services through mobile devices;  << via smart phones and other access
  • Grid medical research: powerful computing and data management capabilities to handle large amounts of heterogeneous data. <<grid is a large number of computers interconnected so that the processing power is increased.
  • Healthcare Information Systems: software solutions for appointment scheduling, patient data management, etc. << NHS direct and other services online

Patient Opinion

Patient feedback for improving UK health services. << this helps research information about the quality of GPs and Dr.s in the UK to give your feedback, it is also linked with eGov.

eHealth Forum
it is online communities where Dr.s and other specialists awser question, but an issue of these communities is that its not regulated and you don’t know the advice with you are getting.

NHS Choices
the NHS online expansion, which includes blogs and articles.

Web 2.0 NHS portal & enabling technologies

Medical Knowledge Management, targeted interactive marketing, education, content, and medical research solutions


Digital interactions between a government and citizens, government and businesses, government and employees, and between government and governments/agencies.

e-Government delivery models (Jeong, 2007)

  • G2C (Government to Citizens)
  • G2B (Government to Businesses)
  • G2E (Government to Employees)
  • G2G (Government to Governments)
  • C2G (Citizens to Governments)


  • Government-to-Citizen is the communication link between a government and private individuals or residents.
  • G2C communication most often refers to that which takes place through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
  • The G2C model applies the strategy of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) with business concept. << it tried to help to create a relationship between Gov to consumer
  • By managing their customer (citizen) relationship, the business (government) can provide the needed products and services fulfil the needs from customer (citizen).

Singapore’s e-citizen Portal << One of the best as it had a enterprise social network aspect and good web design


Government-to-Business is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector.

G2B provides businesses information and advice on e-business ‘best practices’.

G2B transactions include various services exchanged between government and the business community, including dissemination of policies, memos, rules and regulations.

Business services offered include obtaining current business information, downloading application forms, renewing licenses, registering businesses, obtaining permits, and payment of taxes.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS)


Government-to-Government is the online non-commercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and other Government organisations, departments, and authorities.

G2G systems cab be:

Internal facing – joining up a single governments departments, agencies, organisations and authorities.
Example is the integration aspect of Government Gateway and UK NHS Connecting for Health Data SPINE

External facing – joining up multiple governments IS systems . Example is the integration aspect of the Schengen Information System (SIS), developed to meet the requirements of the Schengen Agreement.


Government-to-employees is the online interactions through communication tools between government units and their employees.

It streamlines internal processes, improves collaboration, knowledge sharing and staff productivity.

It enables employee access to information in regard to compensation and benefit policies, training and learning opportunities and civil rights laws.

G2E services also include software for maintaining personnel information and records of employees.

Setting up a context  

Elements of eGovernment (a)* 

  • Easier access – making it easier for citizens and businesses to find, access and interact with government services. <<collect is using the web and decrease handling costs for gov.
  • Service innovation – making government services more responsive to the needs of individuals and improving the quality of service outcomes. << same thing but user does most of leg work
  • Policy innovation – creating new ways for government to understand unmet needs and develop and implement policy initiatives to address priority problems in a timely and efficient manner << by having all information centralised and feedback you are able to react with the information
  • Better engagement – improving the interactions between government and its many agencies and their citizen, community and business stakeholders.  <<less bureaucracy

Elements of eGovernment (b)*  

  • Better coordination – enhancing the way processes interoperate within government and the way information is used and shared across government agencies. <<with less people involved and all information placed online, which decreases costs and increase efficiency, draw back is people who are unable to use technological services.
  • Shared information – enhancing the way data and information is used to provide an evidence base for policy and service responses and also to enable increased use of public sector information by citizens and businesses to boost innovation and engagement in matters of public interest.
  • Efficient operations – streamlining government operations to reduce duplication and waste and promote reuse and sharing of ICT assets to enable redirection of funds from ‘back room’ activities to the front line of service delivery.

Key questions*

  • Who owns these new social networks and in whose interests are they being operated? <<GOV and that Data protection is essential
  • If key public services are provided using social networking services (e.g. advice to parents, tax guidance), to what extent should government seek to control the services upon which it relies? << who controls the information and who has access and who owns the information
  • What are the rules for privacy, security, trust and consent? <<the consent has to be understood
  • How does the government protect the authority of its information while allowing the conversations and communities to grow and flourish? <<how does the GOV separate information which is private and what is public
  • How can a government set clear measures and metrics to gage the success of fairly new and innovative practices and projects? <<
  • How will social media and Web 2.0 continue to change existing government practices and cultures?


  • Mobile government  is the extension of eGovernment to mobile platforms.

Its benefits include:

  • cost reduction
  • efficiency
  • transformation/modernization of public sector organizations
  • added convenience and flexibility
  • better services to the citizens
  • ability to reach a larger number of people

mGovernment problems 

need development of wireless and mobile networks and related infrastructure, as well as software

mobile phone numbers and devices are relatively easily to hack while wireless networks are vulnerable as they use public airwaves to send signals

overcoming mistrust about misuse of personal data sold to third parties

Public participation
need for user-friendly citizen-oriented services and easy access to mGovernment information in alternative forms

Legal Issues
many countries have not yet adopted legislation for data and information practices

Compatibility and Interoperability
need to overcome technical difficulties by using open not proprietary standards.


  • ESN adoption by the private sector has led to the transformation of organisational structures and the broadening of corporate ecosystems.
  • ESN adoption in the public sector is following, by presenting new opportunities, especially in the areas of health, education and governance.
  • Advantages include cost-effectiveness, agility, transparency, end-user empowering, citizen engagement and innovation.
  • And disadvantages?

Further reading

  • Charlton J (2011) Public sector use of Social Media takes off
  • Learning Sites
  • Della Mea V (2001). What is e-Health (2): The death of telemedicine?
  • eHealth,eLearning,eGov:Recommendations from the eUSER Project

Egov Monitor

Lecture by Fefie Dotsika professor at The university of Westminster

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